Development the Longitudinal Torsional Reinforcement

ACI318-19 (R9.7.5.4) States :
 Longitudinal torsional reinforcement required at a support should be adequately anchored into the support. Sufficient embedment length should be provided outside the inner face of the support to develop the needed tensile force in the bars or tendons. For bars, this may require hooks or horizontal U-shaped bars lapped with the longitudinal torsional reinforcement .


Longitudinal reinforcement shall be distributed around the the closed stirrups perimeter , so we shall satisfy the anchorage requirements for all  longitudinal torsional reinforcement .


These requirements are important to satisfy developememt length especially  for side bars and bottom bars that were provided to resist torsional stresses .

Side note : Corner bars are very effective to resist torsional forces


Anas Dawas


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